The President says the move would return federal areas to the people, but critics fear it could open the land for potential development.
Mr Trump said: “Today I’m signing a new executive order to end another egregious abuse of federal power and to give that power back to the states and to the people, where it belongs.”
The sites are mainly in the western US and include venues given protected status by former presidents George W Bush, Bill Clinton and Barack Obama.
The areas are protected by the Antiquities Act 1906 which was made law by President Theodore Roosevelt.
Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke said: “This executive order does not remove any monuments. And this executive order does not weaken any environmental protections on any public land.”
Among those affected are:
Sand To Snow
Established in 2016, the site, in southern California, is 154,000 acres in size and includes just over 100,000 acres that had previously been designated as wilderness.
It is described by the Bureau of Land Management as “one of the most bio-diverse areas in southern California, supporting more than 240 species of birds and threatened and endangered wildlife species”.
The monument spans 1.6 million acres and was created in 2016.
It runs along a 105-mile stretch of old Route 66 between Ludlow and Needles and includes rugged mountain ranges, ancient lava flows and sand dunes.
San Gabriel Mountains
Designated by President Obama in 2014, it is made up of 346,000 acres of federal land. The area is within 90 minutes of the Los Angeles Basin.
Rio Grande del Norte
The monument was established in 2013 and includes rugged open plains of the 242,500 acre Rio Grande del Norte National Monument.
It is dotted with volcanic cones and cut by steep canyons with rivers. Ute Mountain is the highest of the volcanic cones at more than 10,000 feet.
The 204,000-acre site is known for its spectacular wildflower blooms and is about 170 miles from Los Angeles.
It is home to a diverse range of wildlife and plant species. It also features Soda Lake, the largest remaining natural alkali wetland in southern California.
At more than 583,000 square miles of the Pacific Ocean it is larger than all the national parks combined.
It was established in 2015 and its coastal waters include abundant and rare wildlife.