The site of the blaze was also next to the 63-storey The Address Downtown Dubai tower, which was heavily damaged in a fire on New Year’s Eve on 2015.
There were no immediate reports of any casualties, as firefighters battled the flames and ambulances rushed to the scene. Three workers were rescued.
The fire appeared to be confined to the lower floors of The Address Residences Fountain Views – a three tower complex.
At least one of the towers was affected.
Dubai’s government media office said firefighters had brought the blaze under control.
“Cooling operations are under way and ambulance units are on site,” the media office posted on its Twitter account.
The complex is being built by Dubai-based developer Emaar Properties, which constructed the mall and the hotel struck in the 2015 blaze.
The three towers are 60 floors high and they had been due to be completed in April 2018.
“It was plumes and plumes of black smoke. It looks like it was quite low down,” said witness Anthea Ayache.
“There’s so many fire brigades, so they seem to have gotten on top of it very quickly,” she said.
Major fires have hit Dubai high-rises in recent years and spread quickly, mostly due to flammable material used in cladding, a covering or coating used on the side of the buildings.