The singer, now known as Yasiin Bey, left the country on Tuesday after apologising to the government for violating South Africa’s immigration laws.
Def was held in January for travelling with an “unrecognisable” world passport – a document created by an activist group who believe in a world without borders.
WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden are reported to be holders of the passports, but they are not officially recognised.
The 42-year-old hip hop artist and actor, whose real name is Dante Terrel Smith, has since applied for an American passport.
He has also announced his retirement from the music and film business.
On Wednesday, Def announced a partnership with the Apollo Theater and The John F Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts to present his final US performances.
During his farewell appearances, he will perform songs from a different album each night.
Alongside classic hits like New Danger and True Magic, the Ecstatic singer will also perform new material – with each concert featuring a surprise guest.
The rapper is known for his artwork and activism – including campaigning for online music streaming.
Mos Def’s last concerts will begin with a 21 December show at New York’s Apollo, followed by a performance at Washington’s Kennedy Center on the last night of the year.