An investigation was launched following claims the actor was abusive to his 15-year-old son Maddox on the family’s private jet in September.
An FBI spokeswoman said: “In response to allegations made following a flight within the special aircraft jurisdiction of the United States which landed in Los Angeles carrying Mr Brad Pitt and his children, the FBI has conducted a review of the circumstances and will not pursue further investigation.
“No charges have been filed in this matter.”
The decision comes just weeks after the Los Angeles Department of Children and Family Services announced it had closed its own investigation.
The alleged incident happened just days before Angelina Jolie filed for divorce on 19 September.
The actress and UN Special Envoy decided to separate “for the health of the family”, and is seeking full custody of their six children.
Sources close to the family said the decision by the Los Angeles DCFS not to charge the actor will not change Jolie Pitt’s decision to bring the matter of custody to court.
The Hollywood stars were together for 12 years after developing a relationship while filming Mr & Mrs Smith in 2005.